Southwestern Center for Herpetological Research - Conservation - Preservation - Education - Public Information - Research - Field Studies - Captive Propagation - Advancing knowledge and understanding of the herpetofauna of the American Southwest



AMPHIBIANS OF THE AMERICAN SOUTHWEST


   Below is a current list representing the one hundred and fifty-nine (159) species and subspecies of amphibians that
   occur in the region that we have defined as being the American Southwest. Eighty (80) of these are frogs and toads
   and the remaining seventy-nine (79) are salamanders. Three (3) of the listed frogs are introduced species.
Our goal is to eventually provide one or more photographs for every species/subspecies. We also plan to eventually provide habitat photographs and range maps for as many species as possible along with the legal/protective status of each in the states where they occur within our region.

For those species with range maps displayed, please note that these maps have been produced by the U.S. Geological Survey and SWCHR can not guarantee their accuracy. The dark green areas on the maps indicate areas where the occurance of the species has been verified by a vouchered museum specimen. The lighter green areas indicate areas where the species has been documented in literature records or areas where the species is presumed to occur.

To help maintain some degree of taxonomic stability and reduce confusion, we here at the Southwestern Center for Herpetological Research (SWCHR) have elected to take a conservative taxonomic approach when deciding which scientific and common names to utilize in this species listing.


Green Treefrog - Hyla cinerea
           Green Treefrog (Hyla cinerea)
           Photo by Tom Lott, SWCHR

   Please click here for an explanation of our philosophy regarding taxonomic issues. In cases where we feel that the
   current taxonomy of a species/subspecies is either controversial, or if we for any reason elected not to follow either
   Scientific and Standard English Names of Amphibians and reptiles of North America North of Mexico with Comments
   Regarding Confidence in Our Understanding
, 6th Edition, 2008 by Brian I. Crother, et al or Standard Common and
   Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians
, 7th Edition (2009) by
   Joseph T. Collins and Travis W. Taggart, we have linked a taxonomic note to the listing which explains our
   reasoning.

   Those species and subspecies that have photos available are identified as clickable links on the list below. If you
   have quality images that you have taken of species/subspecies that do not yet have photos, you are encouraged to
   submit them along with locality data (County and State only) for possible inclusion.




   ANURA (Frogs and Toads)

BUFONIDAE (True Toads)


Dwarf American Toad - Anaxyrus americanus charlesmithi

Boreal Toad - Anaxyrus boreas boreas

California Toad - Anaxyrus boreas halophilus

Arroyo Toad - Anaxyrus californicus

Yosemite Toad - Anaxyrus canorus

Great Plains Toad - Anaxyrus cognatus

Eastern Green Toad - Anaxyrus debilis debilis

Western Green Toad - Anaxyrus debilis insidior

Black Toad - Anaxyrus exsul

Houston Toad - Anaxyrus houstonensis

Arizona Toad - Anaxyrus microscaphus

Armargosa Toad - Anaxyrus nelsoni

Red-spotted Toad - Anaxyrus punctatus

Sonoran Green Toad - Anaxyrus retiformis

Texas Toad - Anaxyrus speciosus

Southwestern Woodhouse's Toad - Anaxyrus woodhousii australis

Rocky Mountain Toad - Anaxyrus woodhousii woodhousii

Sonoran Desert Toad - Ollotis alvaria

Gulf Coast Toad - Ollotis nebulifer

Cane Toad - Rhinella marina


ELEUTHERODACTYLIDAE (Free-toed Frogs)


Puerto Rican Coqui - Eleutherodactylus coqui   (Introduced Species in California)

Rio Grande Chirping Frog - Eleutherodactylus cystignathoides campi

Spotted Chirping Frog - Eleutherodactylus guttilatus

Cliff Chirping Frog - Eleutherodactylus marnockii

Greenhouse Frog - Eleutherodactylus planiostris   (Introduced Species in Texas)


CRAUGASTORIDAE (Fleshbelly Frogs)


Western Barking Frog - Craugastor augusti cactorum

Balcones Barking Frog - Craugastor augusti latrans


HYLIDAE (Treefrogs and Their Allies)


Eastern Cricket Frog - Acris crepitans crepitans

Coastal Cricket Frog - Acris crepitans paludicola

Canyon Treefrog - Hyla arenicolor

Cope's Gray Treefrog - Hyla chrysoscelis

Green Treefrog - Hyla cinerea

Squirrel Treefrog - Hyla squirella

Gray Treefrog - Hyla versicolor

Arizona Treefrog - Hyla wrightorum

California Treefrog - Pseudacris cadaverina

Spotted Chorus Frog - Pseudacris clarkii

Spring Peeper - Pseudacris crucifer

Cajun Chorus Frog - Pseudacris fouquettei

Northern Baja California Treefrog - Pseudacris hypochondriaca curta

Boreal Chorus Frog - Pseudacris maculata

Northern Pacific Treefrog - Pseudacris regilla

Sierran Treefrog - Pseudacris sierra

Strecker's Chorus Frog - Pseudacris streckeri

Western Chorus Frog - Pseudacris triseriata

Mexican Treefrog - Smilisca baudinii

Lowland Burrowing Treefrog - Smilisca fodiens


LEIOPELMATIDAE (Tailed Frogs)


Coastal Tailed Frog - Ascaphus truei


LEPTODACTYLIDAE (Neotropical Thin-toed Frogs)


Mexican White-lipped Frog - Leptodactylus (labialis) fragilis


MICROHYLIDAE (Microhylid Frogs & Toads)


Eastern Narrow-mouthed Toad - Gastrophryne carolinensis

Western Narrow-mouthed Toad - Gastrophryne olivacea

Sheep Frog - Hypopachus variolosus


PETOBATIDAE (North American Spadefoots & Relatives)


Couch's Spadefoot - Scaphiopus couchii

Hurter's Spadefoot - Scaphiopus hurterii

Plains Spadefoot - Spea bombifrons

Western Spadefoot - Spea hammondii

Great Basin Spadefoot - Spea intermontana

New Mexico Spadefoot - Spea multiplicata stagnalis


PIPIDAE (Tongueless Frogs)


African Clawed Frog - Xenopus laevis   (Introduced Species in Arizona & Ca.)


RANIDAE (True Frogs)


Southern Crawfish Frog - Lithobates areolata areolata

Rio Grande Leopard Frog - Lithobates berlandieri

Plains Leopard Frog - Lithobates blairi

Bull Frog - Lithobates catesbeianus

Chiricahua Leopard Frog - Lithobates chiricahuensis

Bronze Frog - Lithobates clamitans clamitans

Pig Frog - Lithobates grylio

Relict Leopard Frog - Lithobates onca

Pickerel Frog - Lithobates palustris

Northern Leopard Frog - Lithobates pipiens

Southern Leopard Frog - Lithobates sphenocephala utricularius

Tarahumara Frog - Lithobates tarahumarae

Lowland Leopard Frog - Lithobates yavapaiensis

Foothill Yellow-legged Frog - Rana boylii

Cascades Frog - Rana cascadae

California Red-legged Frog - Rana draytonii

Columbia Spotted Frog - Rana luteiventris

Mountain Yellow-legged Frog - Rana muscosa

Oregon Spotted Frog - Rana pretiosa

Sierra Nevada Yellow-legged Frog - Rana sierrae


RHINOPHRYNIDAE (Burrowing Toads)


Mexican Burrowing Toad - Rhinophrynus dorsalis


   CAUDATA (Salamanders)


AMBYSTOMATIDAE (Mole Salamanders)


California Tiger Salamander - Ambystoma californiense

Northwestern Salamander - Ambystoma gracile

Santa Cruz Long-toed Salamander - Ambystoma macrodactylum croceum

Spotted Salamander - Ambystoma maculatum

Barred Tiger Salamander - Ambystoma mavortium mavortium

Blotched Tiger Salamander - Ambystoma mavortium melanostictum

Arizona Tiger Salamander - Ambystoma mavortium nebulosum

Sonoran Tiger Salamander - Ambystoma mavortium stebbinsi

Marbled Salamander - Ambystoma opacum

Mole Salamander - Ambystoma talpoideum

Small-mouthed Salamander - Ambystoma texanum

Eastern Tiger Salamander - Ambystoma tigrinum


AMPHIUMIDAE (Amphiumas)


Three-toed Amphiuma - Amphiuma tridactlum


DICAMPTODONTIDAE (Gaint Salamanders)


California Gaint Salamander - Dicamptodon ensatus

Coastal Gaint Salamander - Dicamptodon tenebrosus


PLETHODONTIDAE (Lungless Salamanders)


Clouded Salamander - Aneides ferreus

Speckled Black Salamander - Aneides flavipunctatus flavipunctatus

Santa Cruz Black Salamander - Aneides flavipunctatus niger

Sacramento Mountains Salamander - Aneides hardii

Arboreal Salamander - Aneides lugubris

Wandering Salamander - Aneides vagrans

California Slender Salamander - Batrachoseps attenuatus

Inyo Mountains Salamander - Batrachoseps campi

Hell Hollow Slender Salamander - Batrachoseps diabolicus

San Gabriel Mountains Slender Salamander - Batrachoseps gabrieli

Gabilan Mountains Slender Salamander - Batrachoseps gavilanensis

Gregarious Slender Salamander - Batrachoseps gregarius

San Simeon Slender Salamander - Batrachoseps incognitus

Sequoia Slender Salamander - Batrachoseps kawia

Santa Lucia Mountains Slender Salamander - Batrachoseps luciae

Desert Slender Salamander - Batrachoseps major aridus

Garden Slender Salamander - Batrachoseps major major

Lesser Slender Salamander - Batrachoseps minor

Black-Bellied Slender Salamander - Batrachoseps nigriventris

Channel Islands Slender Salamander - Batrachoseps pacificus

Kings River Slender Salamander - Batrachoseps regius

Relictual Slender Salamander - Batrachoseps relictus

Kern Plateau Slender Salamander - Batrachoseps robustus

Kern County Slender Salamander - Batrachoseps simatus

Tehachapi Slender Salamander - Batrachoseps stebbinsi

Oregon Slender Salamander - Batrachoseps wrightorum

Southern Dusky Salamander - Desmognathus auriculatus

Yellow-blotched Ensatina - Ensatina eschscholtzii croceater

Monterey Ensatina - Ensatina eschscholtzii eschscholtzii

Large-blotched Ensatina - Ensatina eschscholtzii klauberi

Oregon Ensatina - Ensatina eschscholtzii oregonensis

Painted Ensatina - Ensatina eschscholtzii picta

Sierra Nevada Ensatina - Ensatina eschscholtzii platensis

Yellow-eyed Ensatina - Ensatina eschscholtzii xanthoptica

Salado Salamander - Eurycea chisholmensis

Texas Salamander - Eurycea neotenes

San Marcos Salamander - Eurycea nana

Georgetown Salamander - Eurycea naufragia

Fern Bank Salamander - Eurycea pterophila

Dwarf Salamander - Eurycea quadridigitata

Texas Blind Salamander - Eurycea rathbuni

Blanco Blind Salamander - Eurycea robusta

Barton Springs Salamander - Eurycea sosorum

Jollyville Plateau Salamander - Eurycea tonkawae

Comal Blind Salamander - Eurycea tridentifera

Valdina Farms Salamander - Eurycea troglodytes

Austin Blind Salamander - Eurycea waterlooensis

Limestone Salamander - Hydromantes brunus

Mount Lyell Salamander - Hydromantes platycephalus

Shasta Salamander - Hydromantes shastae

Western Slimy Salamander - Plethodon albagula

Dunn's Salamander - Plethodon dunni

Del Norte Salamander - Plethodon elongatus

Jemez Mountains Salamander - Plethodon neomexicanus

Siskitou Mountains Salamander - Plethodon stormi


PROTEIDAE (Waterdogs and Mudpuppies)


Gulf Coast Waterdog - Necturus beyeri


RHYACOTRITONIDAE (Torrent Salamanders)


Southern Torrent Salamander - Rhyacotriton variegatus


SALAMANDRIDAE (Newts)


Black-spotted Newt - Notophthalmus meridionalis

Central Newt - Notophthalmus viridescens louisianensis

Rough-skinned Newt - Taricha granulosa

Red-bellied Newt - Taricha rivularis

Sierra Newt - Taricha torosa sierrae

Coast Range Newt - Taricha torosa torosa


SIRENIDAE (Sirens)


Western Lesser Siren - Siren intermedia nettingi







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