Amphibians of the American Southwest

Below is a list of the currently recognized species and subspecies of Frogs, Toads, Salamanders and Newts that occur in the region we have defined as being the American Southwest.

To help maintain some degree of taxonomic stability and reduce confusion, the managers of SWCHR have elected to take a conservative taxonomic approach when deciding which scientific and common names to utilize in our species listings. Please click here for an explanation of our philosophy regarding taxonomic issues.

The SWCHR Range Maps used in this section were generated using a variety of current sources and are designed to indicate the general range of the species indicated on the maps.

The USSGS Maps used in this section have been produced by the U.S. Geological Survey and SWCHR cannot guarantee their accuracy. The dark green areas on the maps indicate areas where the occurrence of the species has been verified by a vouchered museum specimen. The lighter green areas indicate areas where the species has been documented in literature records or areas where the species is presumed to occur.

We invite you, our visitors, to submit high quality photographs for consideration to be included in our species accounts. Please include the scientific name of the specimen, your name and the state and county where the specimen was photographed.


ANURA – Frogs & Toads

Bufo (Anaxyrus) americanus charlesmithi – Dwarf American Toad
Bufo (Anaxyrus) boreas boreas – Boreal Toad
Bufo (Anaxyrus) boreas halophilus – California Toad
Bufo (Anaxyrus) californicus – Arroyo Toad
Bufo (Anaxyrus) canorus – Yosemite Toad
Bufo (Anaxyrus) cognatus – Great Plains Toad
Bufo (Anaxyrus) debilis debilis – Eastern Green Toad
Bufo (Anaxyrus) debilis insidior – Western Green Toad
Bufo (Anaxyrus) exsul – Black Toad
Bufo (Anaxyrus) houstonensis – Houston Toad
Bufo (Anaxyrus) microscaphus – Arizona Toad
Bufo (Anaxyrus) nelsoni – Amargosa Toad
Bufo (Anaxyrus) punctatus – Red-spotted Toad
Bufo (Anaxyrus) retiformis – Sonoran Green Toad
Bufo (Anaxyrus) speciosus – Texas Toad
Bufo (Anaxyrus) woodhousii australis –Southwestern Woodhouse’s Toad
Bufo (Anaxyrus) woodhousii woodhousii – Rocky Mountain Toad
Bufo (Incilius) alvarius – Sonoran Desert Toad
Bufo (Incilius) valliceps– Gulf Coast Toad
Bufo (Rhinella) horribilis – Giant Toad

CRAUGASTORIDAE – Fleshbelly Frogs
Craugastor augusti cactorum – Western Barking Frog
Craugastor augusti latrans – Balcones Barking Frog

Eleutherodactylus coqui – Puerto Rican Coqui (Introduced species in California)
Eleutherodactylus cystignathoides campi – Rio Grande Chirping Frog
Eleutherodactylus guttilatus – Spotted Chirping Frog
Eleutherodactylus marnockii – Cliff Chirping Frog
Eleutherodactylus planiostris – Greenhouse Frog (Introduced species in Texas)

HYLIDAE – Treefrogs and their Allies
Acris blanchardi – Blanchard’s Cricket Frog
Hyla arenicolor – Canyon Treefrog
Hyla chrysoscelis – Cope’s Gray Treefrog
Hyla cineria – Green Treefrog
Hyla squirella – Squirrel Treefrog
Hyla versicolor – Gray Treefrog
Hyla wrightorum – Arizona Treefrog
Pseudacris cadaverina – California Treefrog
Pseudacris clarkii – Spotted Chorus Frog
Pseudacris crucifer – Spring Peeper
Pseudacris fouquettei – Cajun Chorus Frog
Pseudacris hypochondriaca curta – Northern Baja California Treefrog
Pseudacris maculata – Boreal Chorus Frog
Pseudacris regilla – Northern Pacific Treefrog
Pseudacris sierra – Sierran Treefrog
Pseudacris streckeri – Strecker’s Chorus Frog
Pseudacris triseriata – Western Chorus Frog
Smilisca baudinii – Mexican Treefrog
Smilisca fodiens – Lowland Burrowing Treefrog

Ascaphus truei – Coastal Tailed Frog

LEPTODACTYLIDAE – Neotropical Thin-toed Frogs
Leptodactylus (labialis) fragilis – Mexican White-lipped Frog

MICROHYLIDAE (Microhylid Frogs & Toads)
Gastrophryne carolinensis – Eastern Narrow-mouthed Toad
Gastrophryne olivacea – Western Narrow-mouthed Toad
Hypopachus variolosus – Sheep Frog

PETOBATIDAE – North American Spadefoots & Relatives
Scaphiopus couchii – Couch’s Spadefoot
Scaphiophus hurterii – Hurter’s Spadefoot
Spea bombifrons – Plains Spadefoot
Spea hammondii – Western Spadefoot
Spea intermontana – Great Basin Spadefoot
Spea multiplicata stagnalis – New Mexican Spadefoot

PIPIDAE – Tongueless Frogs
Xenopus laevis – African Clawed Frog (Introduced species in Arizona and California)

RANIDAE – True Frogs
Lithobates areolata areolata – Southern Crawfish Frog
Lithobates berlandieri – Rio Grande Leopard Frog
Lithobates blairi – Plains Leopard Frog
Lithobates catesbeianus – Bull Frog
Lithobates chiricahuensis – Chiricahua Leopard Frog
Lithobates clamitans clamitans – Bronze Frog
Lithobates grylio – Pig Frog
Lithobates onca – Relict Leopard Frog
Lithobates palustris – Pickerel Frog
Lithobates pipiens – Northern Leopard Frog
Lithobates sphenocephala utricularius – Southern Leopard Frog
Lithobates tarahumare – Tarahumara Frog
Lithobates yavapaiensis – Lowland Leopard Frog
Rana boylii – Foothill Yellow-legged Frog
Rana cascadae – Cascades Frog
Rana draytonii – California Red-legged Frog
Rana luteiventris – Columbia Spotted Frog
Rana muscosa – Mountain Yellow-legged Frog
Rana pretiosa – Oregon Spotted Frog
Rana sierrae – Sierra Nevada Yellow-legged Frog

RHINOPHRINIDAE – Burrowing Toads
Rhinophrynus dorsalis – Mexican Burrowing Toad


CAUDATA – Salamanders

AMBYSTOMATIDAE – Mole Salamanders
Ambystoma californiense – California Tiger Salamander
Ambystoma gracile – Northwest Salamander
Ambystoma macrodactylum croceum – Santa Cruz Long-toed Salamander
Ambystoma maculatum – Spotted Salamander
Ambystoma mavortium mavortium – Barred Tiger Salamander
Ambystoma mavortium melanostictum – Blotched Tiger Salamander
Ambystoma mavortium nebulosum – Arizona Tiger Salamander
Ambystoma mavortium stebbensi – Sonoran Tiger Salamander
Ambystoma opacum – Marbled Salamander
Ambystoma talpoideum – Mole Salamander
Ambystoma texanum – Small-mouthed Salamander
Ambystoma tigrinum – Eastern Tiger Salamander

Amphiuma tridactylum – Three-toed Amphiuma

DICAMPTODONTIDAE – Giant Salamanders
Dicamptodon ensatus – California Giant Salamander
Dicamptodon tenebrosus – Coastal Giant Salamander

PLETHODONTIDAE – Lungless Salamanders
Aneides ferreus – Clouded Salamander
Aneides flavipunctatus flavipunctatus – Speckeled Black Salamander
Aneides flavipunctatus niger – Santa Cruz Black Salamander
Aneides hardii – Sacramento Mountains Salamander
Aneides lugubris – Arboreal Salamander
Aneides vagrans – Wandering Salamander
Batrachoseps attenuatus – California Slender Salamander
Batrachoseps campi – Inyo Mountains Slender Salamander
Batrachoseps diabolicus – Hell Hollow Slender Salamander
Batrachoseps gabrieli – San Gabriel Mountains Slender Salamander
Batrachoseps gavilanensis – Gabilan Mountains Slender Salamander
Batrachoseps gregarius – Gregarius Slender Salamander
Batrachoseps incognitus – San Simeon Slender Salamander
Batrachoseps kawai – Sequoia Slender Salamander
Batrachoseps luciae – Santa Lucia Mountains Slender Salamander
Batrachoseps major aridus – Desert Slender Salamander
Batrachoseps major major – Garden Slender Salamander
Batrachoseps minor – Lesser Slender Salamander
Batrachoseps nigriventris – Black-bellied Slender Salamander
Batrachoseps pacificus – Channel Islands Slender Salamander
Batrachoseps regius – Kings River Slender Salamander
Batrachoseps relictus – Relictual Slender Salamander
Batrachoseps robustus – Kern Plateau Slender Salamander
Batrachoseps simatus – Kern County Slender Salamander
Batrachoseps stebbinsi – Tehachapi Slender Salamander
Desmognathus auriculatus – Southern Dusky Salamander
Ensatina eschscholtzii croceater – Yellow-blotched Ensatina
Ensatina eschscholtzii eschscholtzii – Monterey Ensatina
Ensatina eschscholtzii klauberi – Large-blotched Ensatina
Ensatina eschscholtzii oregonensis – Oregon Ensatina
Ensatina eschscholtzii picta – Painted Ensatina
Ensatina eschscholtzii platensis – Sierra Nevada Ensatina
Ensatina eschscholtzii xanthoptica – Yellow-eyed Ensatina
Eurycea chisholmensis – Salado Salamander
Eurycea neotenes – Texas Salamander
Eurycea nana – San Marcos Salamander
Eurycea naufragia – Georgetown Salamander
Eurycea pterophila – Fern Bank Salamander
Eurycea quadridigitada – Dwarf Salamander
Eurycea rathbuni – Texas Blind Salamander
Eurycea robusta – Blanco Blind Salamander
Eurycea sosorum – Barton Springs Salamander
Eurycea tonkawae – Jollyville Plateau Salamander
Eurycea tridentifera – Comal Blind Salamander
Eurycea troglodytes – Valdina Farms Salamander
Eurycea waterlooensis – Austin Blind Salamander
Hydromantes brunus – Limestone Salamander
Hydromantes platycephalus – Mount Lyell Salamander
Hydromantes shastae – Shasta Salamander
Plethodon albagula – Western Slimy Salamander
Plethodon dunni – Dunn’s Salamander
Plethodon elongatus – Del Norte Salamander
Plethodon neomexicanus – Jemez Mountains Salamander
Plethodon stormi – Siskitou Mountains Salamander

PROTEIDAE – Waterdogs and Mudpuppies
Necturus beyeri – Gulf Coast Waterdog

RHYACOTRITONIDAE – Torrent Salamanders
Rhyacotriton variegatus – Southern Torrent Salamander

Notophthalmus meridionalis – Black-spotted Newt
Notopthalmus viridescens louisianensis – Central Newt
Taricha granulosa – Rough-skinned Newt
Taricha rivularis – Red-bellied Newt
Taricha torosa sierrae – Sierra Newt
Taricha torosa torosa – Coast Range Newt

Siren intermedia nettingi – Western Lesser Siren